Foreign body in Oesophagus – Food Pipe

Sharp esophageal foreign bodies, such as needles, pins, and hairclips can perforate the esophagus, and the smooth foreign bodies such as coins may become sagitally oriented and can encroach on the trachea, causing biphasic stridor. Both require immediate medical attention. Most of the foreign bodies would be lodged in the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Due to the linear and sharply pointed contours, a fish bone can migrate to the thyroid gland, carotid artery, mediastinum, or subcutaneous tissue. They may migrate extraluminally to the skin in rare cases. A small unidentified foreign body will spontaneously pass out through the alimentary tract without any complication.

Severe complications are often associated with delayed discovery due to silent and delayed clinical manifestations such as new onset asthma, excessive salivation or recurrent upper respiratory infections or fistulas to the surrounding structures.

Esophageal diseases can derive from congenital conditions, or they can be acquired later in life. Esophageal tumor is a cancerous tumor of the esophagus. The presence of esophageal cancer may disrupt normal peristalsis. The symptoms of esophageal cancer include nausea and vomiting, regurgitation of food, coughing and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia. Prolonged heartburn may erode the lining of the esophagus, leading to Barrett's esophagus and cause increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Oesophageal cancer treatment options are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. The method of esophageal cancer treatment depends on the site of cancer, the invasion of the cancer, general health of the patient and the symptoms. There are several types of esophageal surgery involved. The type depends mainly on where the cancer is located. The surgeon may remove the whole esophagus or only the part that has the cancer. The prognosis of esophageal cancer should be done in follow up consultations.

Some people also experience a sensation known as globus esophagus, where it feels as if a ball is lodged in the lower part of the esophagus.

Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus. These spasms do not move food effectively to the stomach. The cause of esophageal spasm is unknown, but very hot or very cold foods may trigger an episode in some people. Symptoms can include dysphagia, regurgitation, and noncardiac chest pain. Because of the vague symptoms they are rarely diagnosed and are undertreated.

Esophageal atresia is a congenital defect of the digestive system in which the esophagus does not develop properly. In most cases, the upper esophagus ends and does not connect with the lower esophagus and stomach. Esophageal atresia is considered a surgical emergency.

An esophageal hernia is the protrusion of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm. Symptoms of oesophageal hiatus hernia can resemble many disorders. It causes dull pains in the chest, shortness of breath. Large hiatal hernia may cause esophageal stricture and discomfort. Where hernia symptoms are severe and chronic acid reflux results and they can severely injure the esophagus and even lead to esophageal cancer.

An esophageal ulcer is a hole in the lining of the esophagus corroded by the acidic digestive juices secreted by the stomach cells. It is usually located in the lower section of your esophagus. Esophageal ulcers are not contagious.

Esophageal pain: There are certain conditions that can lead to esophagus pain. The pain that arises from the food pipe is difficult to diagnose, as the chest pain of esophageal origin is very similar to chest pain due to cardiac causes.

Esophageal tear is defined as a falling out of the esophageal wall resulting from a mucosal tear, perforation, or rupture. Tears of the esophagus are life-threatening conditions that require prompt diagnosis and emergency treatment. The most common causes of esophageal tear, perforation, and hematoma are iatrogenic factors. Esophageal perforation is a serious life threatening injury that may occur during inadvertent esophageal intubation.

Esophagus tests measure muscle pressure and movement, coordination, and strength of the food pipe that connects the throat to the stomach. Esophagus tests also measure the movement and volume of gas, liquid, and solid through the esophagus and its pH.
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