Narrowing of food pipe - Oesophaous Stenosis

Oesophageal Stenosis is one of the disorders of esophagus in which esophagus get shortened, causing swallowing difficulties. The causes of Stenosis esophagus may be reflux esophagitis, prolonged use of a nasogastric tube, ingestion of corrosive substances, viral or bacterial infections, treatment of esophageal varices or the injuries caused by endoscopes. The strictures are produced by the scar tissue that develops in the esophagus.

The causes of esophageal Stenosis can be grouped into intrinsic diseases that narrow the esophageal lumen through inflammation, fibrosis, or neoplasia; extrinsic diseases cause Stenosis by direct invasion or lymph node enlargement; and diseases that disrupt esophageal peristalsis or lower esophageal sphincter function. The causes may be acid peptic, autoimmune, infectious, caustic, congenital, iatrogenic, medication-induced, radiation-induced, malignant, and idiopathic disease processes. In severe cases, the size may get reduced in such a way that the food and fluids move very slowly across the opening into the stomach.

Lymphnode enlargement

Lymph node enlargement can be either localized enlargement, restricted to one lymph node area or generalized enlargement, found across multiple lymph node areas.

Several mechanisms can cause the lymph nodes to enlarge:
  • Infection: This can increase the number of immune cells and cause the lymph nodes to enlarge.
  • Virus: Immune reaction to a generalized infection in the body such as viral infections can occur with the common cold as well as more serious infections such as HIV
  • Cancer: Metastases of cells brought to the node with the lymph flowing from an area of certain types of cancer. Cancerous lymph nodes are seen on the upper neck even without metastasis.
  • Symptoms of swollen lymph glands can be caused by some medications.
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes can be a warning sign for lymphoma.

Swollen, tender or painful lymph nodes in neck can cause extreme discomfort. And these enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, can be due to infection in the neck, head or mouth, including strep throat and cold. Swollen and painful lymph nodes are also seen in babies when the tooth comes or in ear infections. Other diseases such as toxoplasmosis, cat-scratch fever and tuberculosis are also indicated by enlarged neck lymph nodes. Swollen lymph nodes in neck on one side are most likely to be caused by pathogenic infections or inflammatory medical conditions. The right supraclavicular lymph nodes drain the lungs, mediastinum and esophagus. It is commonly enlarged due to lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer or Hodgkin's lymphoma. The left supraclavicular lymph node drains the chest and abdomen. The swollen neck lymph nodes on left side can be due to thoracic or retroperitoneal cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, or an infection.

Standard treatment for swollen lymph nodes may include pain relievers and medicine to lower a fever, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Warm compresses and elevation may help reduce and resolve swelling. Antibiotics or antiviral medications for infections, drainage of localized abscess by cutting open the skin and then filling the opening with packing. Surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy may be used for swelling due to malignancy. Immunocompromised individual may need special prescription medication to help with the disease.
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