Polyps within Sinuses

Sac-like growths of inflamed tissue lining the nasal mucosa or sinuses are referred to as nasal polyps. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that often accompany allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic sinus infection, and cystic fibrosis or aspirin sensitivity. Sinus polyps start appearing near the ethmoid sinuses and grow into the open areas. They can block the sinuses or nasal airway as it grows. They are freely movable and non-tender.

Polyps usually grow in both nostrils, either solitary or in clusters. Polyps in one side of the nose are not common. Nasal polyposis can have a major effect on person's quality of life than perennial allergic rhinitis.

Symptoms of polyps include nasal congestion, mouth breathing, sinusitis, runny nose, anosmia, and secondary infection leading to headache. A CT scan of the sinuses will show polyps as opaque spots.

A large polyp block the air flow and draining of fluids from the sinuses and nasal cavity, leading to complications including; chronic or frequent sinus infections and obstructive sleep apnea. Sometimes the structure of the face may be altered, leading to double vision.

Nasal polyps treatment: Sinus rinses with saline water is helpful in clearing the sinuses. Medications can be used to help relieve symptoms but it would not remove nasal polyps. Nasal blockage or runny nose can be reduced by nasal steroid sprays, but recurrence is seen if treatment is stopped. Corticosteroid pills or liquid may also improve symptoms. Antibiotics are prescribed in case of a bacterial sinus infection. Some people may need nasal polyps' surgery, such as functional endoscopic sinus surgery to remove the polyps. Polypectomy is another surgical procedure used for the treatment of polyps in nose. Corticosteroid nasal sprays may be prescribed after surgery to help prevent recurrence.

Fractured Nasal bone

The most common types of facial fractures are nasal fractures, but they may be unrecognized and untreated at the time of injury. The central placement and anterior protrusion of the nose on the face makes them vulnerable to traumatic injury. A nasal fracture or a broken nose refers to the fracture of one of the bones of the nose. Nasal fractures are caused by physical trauma including; sports injuries, fighting, falls, and car accidents.

Nasal fractures occur either from a lateral impact or from a head-on impact. The nose is displaced away from the midline on the side of the injury in lateral trauma, whereas in head-on trauma, the nasal bones are pushed up and dislocated, the upper nose appears broad and the height of the nose is collapsed. The septum will be fractured and displaced in both cases.

Cartilaginous injury is more in children owing to the presence of greater proportion of cartilage to bone which provides increased protection from fracture. The bones of children are also more elastic than adult bones; hence the fractures in children are mostly fracture without displacement. Symptoms of nasal fractures include: bruising, swelling, tenderness, pain, deformity, bleeding of the nose. The patient may have difficulty breathing.

Uncorrected fractures of nasal bones could lead to loss of structural integrity and the soft tissue changes. A thorough physical examination of a decongested nose is critical, since the management of nasal fractures is based solely on the clinical assessment of function and appearance. Minor nasal fractures do not require any treatment. To ease the discomfort during the healing process, doctor may prescribe ice, pain medication, and nasal decongestants. Realignment of the broken bone and cartilage piece need to be done if the nose has been deformed.
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