Puss filled sinus infection

Sinusitis is the infection of the sinus cavities. In well functioning sinuses, the infection gets cleared rapidly with antibiotics and the pus gets cleared easily through the nose. But any obstructions to the sinus openings into the nose result in accumulation of pus in sinus cavities.

The cause of nasal sinus infection include common cold, nasal allergies, nasal polyps, fungal functions, allergic nose like hay fever, cystic fibrosis or other anatomical variations of the nose and sinus cavities.

Symptoms of sinusitis include; Nasal congestion, a blocked, stuffy nose, facial pain and pressure, headaches, postnasal drip, bad breath, cough and fatigue. Pus filled yellow discharges are common in both acute and chronic sinusitis. When the puss infection spreads to the brain it can cause meningitis and other puss infections of brain. It can result in complications such as changes in vision, limited loss of nerve function, elevated cranial pressure resulting in severe headaches and vomiting, seizures, and coma. The untreated infection can be fatal.

Sinus infections can be diagnosed with nasal endoscopy, which involves the examination of the passages and sinuses with a flexible fiber-optic tube with a light and camera.

Treatment of sinuses depends on the cause, saline nasal sprays, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants and over-the-counter pain relievers can be used for acute sinus infections. In chronic cases, doctors may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroid nasal sprays together with oral corticosteroids. Steroids decrease the swelling and inflammation that has led to sinus obstruction. The accumulated pus can be drained out into the nose properly by removing the obstruction.

Antibiotics are used to treat severe, recurrent or persistent bacterial sinus infections. An intravenous medication may be prescribed if the agent is of fungal origin. A new procedure known as sinuplasty is used to dilate the cavities using an inserted catheter in the sinuses. The endoscopic sinus surgery or balloon sinuplasty involves minimal disruption to the sinuses but allows complete mucus drainage.

Perforated Septum

The blood supply to the septal quadrangulepistaxisar cartilage is carried through the nasal septum. Any insult in the form of chemical, physical or iatrogenic, to the septum can lead to a perforated septum. Septal perforations are a diagnostic challenge owing to the multitude of underlying causes. A perforated nasal septum is a medical condition in which a hole or fissure is developed in the nasal septum, the cartilaginous membrane dividing the nostrils.

The causes can be nasal piercings, or trauma, long-term topical drug use like cocaine or decongestant nasal sprays, chronic , aggressive digital nasal cleaning, inflammatory or infectious causes, carcinomas and as a complication of nasal surgery like septoplasty or rhinoplasty.

A nasal septum perforation varies in size and location, and is usually found deep within the nose. It may be asymptomatic, or cause a multitude of symptoms. Small perforations can cause a whistling noise during breathing. Larger perforations cause crusting, blood discharge, difficulty breathing, nasal pressure and discomfort. The likeliness to cause symptoms depends on the closeness of perforation to the nostril.

The majority of septal perforations can be managed without surgery. The hole may not close by its own but with the healing of trailing edge of the perforation, the vast majority of symptoms resolve. A cream using a cotton applicator can be applied to the raw surface continuously. This will prevent this area from drying out, cracking, bleeding, forming a scab and crusting up. Nasal septum surgery may be used to close a larger perforation. This is done either using an autograft to stitch into the hole or a tissue flap to cover the perforation.
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