Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a distinct area of medical field implicated in the correction or restoration of form and function. Cosmetic face surgery or aesthetic facial surgery is the well-known plastic surgery, but most plastic surgery is not cosmetic. The types of plastic surgery procedures includes: reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. In plastic surgery, skin grafts used are of autografts, allografts, xenografts.

Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors. Reconstructive plastic surgery may also be done to approximate a normal appearance.

1.Ear Lobe tear correction or EAR LOBULE STITCHING

The risk of stretching, tearing and keloid scarring (a benign growth on scar tissue) on the earlobes enhances with piercing the ears. Since location of piercing the ear is sensitive, the chances of splitting the tears are high and are very visible. The cause may be accidental or may be related to wearing excessively heavy ear-rings. Earlobe repair surgery fixes the split and enables you to wear earrings again. The torn holes are completely cut out and the ear lobe is repaired using fine stitching on the front and the back of the ear lobe. Stitches are removed after one to two weeks. The scar from ear stitching is almost always imperceptible. Earlobe repair is a relatively simple procedure. The surgeon cuts away the healed skin on the inside of the torn earlobe to allow the lobe of the ear to heal back together. The fresh edges are sutured back together.

2.Facial deformity correction

Corrective jaw, or orthognathic, surgery is a form of plastic surgery of face performed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons to correct a broad range of minor and major skeletal and dental irregularities. The same time there occurs great improvement in the patient's appearance. Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems such as: difficulty chewing, or biting food; difficulty swallowing; excessive wear of the teeth; open bite; unbalanced facial appearance from the front, or side; facial injury or birth defects; receding chin; protruding jaw; inability to make the lips meet without straining; chronic mouth breathing and dry mouth; sleep apnea.

Craniofacial surgery encompasses a broad spectrum of reconstructive procedures of the cranium and face. Cosmetic facial surgery encompasses the reconstruction of a broad spectrum of facial deformities. These techniques and principles have become the standard of care in congenital and acquired deformities.

3.Plastic surgery of nose

Nose forms the centre of the face contributes in the beauty of face. The plastic surgery of nose involves changes to all or some parts in the nose and reshaping. People who have difficulty in breathing or want to re-shape the nose can be improved simultaneously. Septum can be corrected at the same time resulting in being able to breathe better. This is the most frequently performed facial plastic surgery. The results achieved are permanent and very pleasing for the patients. The surgery is performed for reducing or enlarging certain areas, smoothing nose humps, narrowing the nose, correcting the deviation and making the nose sharper. The deformities of the nose may be congenital or may have developed secondary to an injury. The ideal condition for the surgery of the nose is after the completion of growth.

Rhinoplasty (nose job) is one of the most popular plastic surgeries and is mainly done to shape the nose and make it look sharper or improve its function. Nose job or rhinoplasty is performed to correct breathing problems related to the nose or to correct disfigurement of the nose due to trauma or abnormal shape of the nose due to birth defects. Cosmetic rhinoplasty is performed on normal noses and can reduce or increase the size of your nose, or change the size or shape of the tip, the bridge, or nostrils.

4.Cleft lip repair

Cleft lip is a congenital deformation result in slit like opening of the upper lip which causes communication between nose and mouth. The failure of fusing lip tissues results in cleft lip.

The repair of cleft lip is a separation of the upper lip that extended into the nose. Plastic Surgery is done to correct physical deformity, and to rectify the feeding, and speech problems. The cleft lip and palate repair can be successfully done with surgery, especially so if conducted soon after birth or in early childhood. The most common procedure to repair a cleft lip is the Millard procedure; however, the kind of treatment depends on the type and severity of the cleft.

5.Cleft palate repair

The two plates of the skull that form the hard palate (roof of the mouth) are not completely joined in cleft Palate. Cleft palate repair can be done using many types of orthodontic appliances which realign the premaxilla into a normal position prior to lip closure. It can also be corrected by surgery. Combinations of surgical methods and repeated surgeries are often necessary as the child grows. One of the advanced forms of cleft lip and cleft palate repair is the Latham appliance. The repairs differ depending upon whether the cleft is an isolated cleft palate or part of a unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. Widely used methods are; simple palatal closure, palatal closure with palatal lengthening, direct palatal muscle reapproximation, intravelar veloplasty and two-flap palatoplasty.

6.Cleft lip and palate Repair

Cleft lip and cleft palate can also occur together as cleft lip and palate, are variations of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. There is no universally agreed timing and technique of repair. Several methods are used with comparable long-term results. Treatment goals include the restoration of facial appearance and oral function, improvement of dental skeletal and occlusal relationships, improvement of speech, and the psychosocial state. This is a multidisciplinary clinical care allowing efficient coordination of all aspects of care. Beyond the lip repair are other issues such as hearing, speech, dental, and psychosocial integration. A number of surgical procedures for the repair of a unilateral cleft lip are available with a multitude of variations, including the LeMesurier quadrilateral flap repair, Randall-Tennison triangular flap repair, Millard rotation-advancement repair, and Skoog and Kernahan-Bauer upper and lower lip Z-plasty repairs; and Delaire and by Poole.

The ultimate goal of each of these techniques is achieving symmetry and restoring the continuity of the underlying orbicularis muscle.
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