Sleep analysis and check up-watch pat

The importance of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and other sleep disorders, is that they are associated with obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a major public health problem, and also insomnia and sleep disorders may have serious implications in the daily and social life.

The laboratory sleep disorder test using full polysomnography is the gold standard for sleep disorders diagnosis. Parameters checked in this test include; electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, oxygen saturation.

Polysomnography has also been the standard technique of sleep analysis for quantifying the number of arousals during sleep and for providing an index of sleep fragmentation. Different sleep phases correspond to different degrees of the sympatho-vagal balance. Frequency analysis of the HRV signal can quantify this. In addition some events that occur during sleep, such as arousals, k-complexes on the EEG, sleep stage transitions and sleep apneas cause typical patterns.

Surgery for correction of Snoring

Surgery for snoring removes obstructions in the nose or corrects a deviated septum when the cause of snoring is only the blockage.

The Pillar procedure or the palatal surgery, involves the insertion of palatal implants to treat habitual snoring. It is a minimally invasive operation. The Pillar procedure addresses the soft palate, if the sleep apnea and snoring arises from palate instead from the base of tongue. Adenotonsillectomy may be performed in children to correct loud snoring and restless sleep. Radio-frequency ablation of the palate reduces snoring. Snoring can also be caused by the uvula. There are several procedures that involve the uvula and palate. They either remove the tissue or make them stiffen. Snoring due to palate can be treated by making them stiff. The palate can be stiffened by creating scar tissue with implants. Uvulectomy is the removal of the uvula. The main risks of Uvulectomy are pain, bleeding, and altered speech.

1.Laser assisted uvulo palato plasty

Laser assisted uvulopalatoplasty refers to the trimming of the palate with a laser. Small cuts are made in the palate on each side of the uvula with a laser. Several procedures are usually needed for a maximal effect. The scarring caused by the procedure stiffens the palate, decreasing the ability of the palate to vibrate and pulls the palate sideways to tighten it. This procedure results in mild to moderate pain and oral pain medications can be used during the healing period.

This procedure is used to relieve snoring and can be performed in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon's office with local or general anesthesia.

2.Shortening of Uvula - For Snoring

Uvula is a piece of tissue swings from the centre of the palate at the back of throat. Long and broad uvula may obstruct breathing when the patient is lying down and asleep. Operation involving the reduction of uvula, shortens the uvula and is a very effective snoring solution in some patients.

It is a painful operation and cause risk of causing nasal regurgitation if the operation is carried out too radically. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or Laser-Assisted Uvulopalatoplasty involves removing excess tissue from the throat.

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: If the airway collapses at the soft palate, this method is the treatment of choice. It is carried out on patients who are unable to tolerate the continuous positive airway pressure technique. It shortens and stiffens the soft palate by partially removing the uvula and reducing the edge of the soft palate. UPPP removes excess tissues in the throat such as excess uvula tissue, tonsils, adenoids, and tissues within the pharynx. It widens the airway, which usually results in a decrease in snoring.

Laser Assisted Uvulopalatoplasty: The CO2 laser is used to remove the uvula and trim the soft palate. Not all apneas are cured by removing extra palatal tissue due to the involvement of the tongue.

3.Tongue base reduction - For Snoring

The tongue suspension procedure retains the tongue from falling back over the air passage while sleeping. A small screw is placed into the lower jawbone and stitches are made below the tongue. This procedure is usually performed along with others and is potentially reversible.

Genioglossus Advancement- GGA is a sleep disorder treatment developed specifically to treat obstructive sleep apnea, and is designed to open the upper breathing passage. The procedure tightens the front tongue tendon; thereby, reducing the degree of tongue displacement into the throat.

Maxillomandibular Advancement- The soft tissues of the tongue and palate are moved forward as the bones advance, it opens up the upper airway.

Genioglossus and hyod advancement is a surgical procedure for the treatment of sleep apnea. It prevents collapse of the lower throat and pulls the tongue muscles forward, thereby opening the obstructed airway.
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